The city of Bethar became the center of the movement. This revolt was the culmination of political tensions between Jews and the Romans, owing to the large military presence in Judea, the failure of the first revolt, and possibly Emperor Hadrian’s establishment of a temple of Jupiter in the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Many Jews assimilated and many sages and prominent men were martyred including Rabbi Akiva and the rest of the Asara Harugei Malchut (ten martyrs). The other two were the Kitios War (115-117) and the First Jewish War (66-70 AD). Shimon Bar-Kokhba was the leader of the Jewish revolt against Rome between 132 and 135 C.E. Watch our explainer video to learn more about this important piece of Jewish history. A rebellious Jewish population would coalescence around a man who would be proclaimed a messiah. For many years, historians did not write very much about Simon Bar Kosiba. The Bar Kochba Revolt (132–136 CE) was the third and final war between the Jewish people and the Roman Empire. We know from the documents that the country was organized into administrative districts, that taxes were collected, and that governmental operations were carried out by Bar Kochba’s supporters. Parenthetically, the texts also show that Hebrew was very much a living lan­guage at this time, and that, along with Aramaic and Greek, it served a large segment of the population. Jews were hiding in caves in order to be able to perform the mitzvahs. In approximately 132 C.E., Hadrian began to establish a city in Jerusalem called Aelia Capitolina, the name being a combination of his own name and that of the Roman god Jupiter Capitolinus. The Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136 CE), [2] Hebrew: מרד בר כוכבא ‎ or mered bar kokhba, was the third major rebellion by the Jews of Judaea Province against the Roman Empire and the last of the Jewish-Roman Wars. In the post-rabbinical era, the Bar-Kokhba Revolt became a symbol of valiant national resistance. We use cookies to improve your experience on our site and bring you ads that might interest you. Yet during the years of rule by the autonomous Hillelite patriarchs and the leaders of the tannaitic academies, problems were brewing, both inside and outside the Land of Israel. By the end of the war many Jews had been massacred, the land had been devastated again, and distinguished rabbis had been martyred. The sobriquet Bar Kokhba, “Son of a Star,” was given to him in accord with Num. Obverse: 'Shimon' (in Palaeo-Hebrew) around the tetrastyle facade of the Temple of… The Jews organized guerilla forces and, in 123 C.E., began launching surprise attacks against the Romans. It followed a long period of tension and violence, marked by the first Jewish uprising of 66-70 CE, which ended with the destruction of the Second Temple, and the Kitos War (115-117 CE). Following the battle of Bethar, there were a few small skirmishes in the Judean Desert Caves, but the war was essentially over and Judean independence was lost. Hadrian quickly went back on his word, however, and requested that the site of the Temple be moved from its original location. The Bar Kokhba Revolt was a Jewish rebellion against the Roman Empire. The Bar Kokhba Revolt broke out in 132 C.E., 62 years after the subjection of Judea and Jerusalem and the destruction of the temple by Titus, and continued for three and half years. News coverage you can trust The Jews minted coins with slogans such as “The freedom of Israel” written in Hebrew. Simon bar Kokhba (Hebrew: שמעון בר כוכבא ‎) (died CE 135) was the Jewish leader of what is known as the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE, establishing an independent Jewish state which he ruled for three years as Nasi ("Prince"). Those who supported him saw him as a messianic figure. Before long pitched battles were being fought in Egypt. "The Bar Kokhba War AD 132-136" is an Osprey Campaign Series book. Copyright © 2002-2021 My Jewish Learning. An attack against such fundamental commandments of Judaism was bound to trigger a revolt-which it did. Supposedly of the line of David, some hailed him as the Messiah, inferred from his name change, Kosba to Kokhba (“Son of the Star” from Numbers 24:17). 70AD) and a second revolt, known as the Bar Kokhba revolt, happened several decades later. When discovered by Roman soldiers, they resisted, in some cases successfully. Ben Sasson, Editor. Yet as victories go, Simon Bar Kochba's was a Pyrrhic one. A different kind of redemption was now at hand. Military aspects of the revolt were led by Simon Bar Kosiba (Bar Kokhba), who is named “Simon, Prince of Israel” on some revolt coins. , “ The Bar Kokhba Revolt: The Roman Point of View,” Journal of Roman Studies 89 (1999). The main conflicts took place in Judea, the Shephela, the mountains and the Judean desert, though fighting also spread to Northern Israel. 24:17(“A star shall go forth from Jacob”), taken to refer to the messiah. Simeon Bar Kochba is surrounded by legend, and little is known of his life. " we've had enough of long noses and money jokes. He first reconquered the Galilee to cut the Romans off from the sea. Capitolina on the ruins of Jerusalem and the Bar Kokhba revolt. Under the strong leadership of Shimon Bar-Kokhba, the Jews captured approximately 50 strongholds in Judea and 985 undefended towns and villages, including Jerusalem. It is also probable that Hadrian prohibited circumcision even before the Bar Kochba Revolt, although some see the outlawing of circumcision as a measure enacted after the upris­ing had begun, much like the persecutions of Antiochus IV. all credit goes to dovahhaty https://m.youtube.com/channel/UCdZY83VtDv0WieDHLyXrlNQ Hadrian brought an extra army legion, the “Sixth Ferrata,” into Judea to deal with the terrorism. The Bar Kochba Revolt: A Disaster Celebrated by Zionists on Lag Ba'Omer On Lag Ba'Omer, Israeli children celebrate the Jewish rebels' victory over the Romans 2,000 years ago. Early in the time of Hadrian there was an abortive attempt to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple, believed by some scholars to have had Hadrian’s support. Bar Kochba Jewish outrage at his actions led to one of the single greatest revolts of the Roman Era. Jews were sold into slavery and many were transported to Egypt. Jews from other countries, and even some gentiles, volunteered to join their crusade. They were permitted to enter only on the 9th of Av to mourn their losses in the revolt. Coin of Bar Kochba, with the temple and a Messianic star. The caves helped Jews fight against the Romans during two revolts; one revolt occurred around the time the temple was destroyed in Jerusalem (approx. The failure of this effort was another great disappointment for the Jewish community of Palestine. Bar-Kokhba united his army in Judea and led the Jews in battle. It was in this period that tannaitic Judaism came to its final stages, and that the work of gathering its intellectual heritage, the Mishnah, into a redacted collection began. Thousands of Jewish refugees fled to Bethar during the war. The Land of Israel seems to have been involved in these battles only to a limited extent. Bar Kokhba became the leader of this Second Jewish Revolt; although at first successful, his forces proved no match against the methodical and ruthless tactics of the Roman general Julius Severus. To the Romans, the revolt was best forgotten but was sometimes cited as an example of a particularly bloody and brutal confrontation with an intractable enemy. Answer: The Bar Kokhba revolt was a series of battles from AD 132 to 135 waged against the Roman Empire by Jews led by Simeon bar Kosba, who made messianic claims and who was renamed Bar Kokhba (“Son of the Star”) by an influential rabbi. Jewish outrage at his actions led to one of the single greatest revolts of the Roman Era. To be sure, other social, economic, and political causes were at work, especially a general decline in relations between Jews and their neighbors in the Hellenistic world, but when these finally led to the of a rebellion, it was the belief in a messianic future that made possible the leap of faith to the belief that the revolt might succeed. He had active support of most of the rabbis … The marriage of politics and religion contributed to both the expansion and destruction of this short-lived dynasty. He also began deporting Jews to North Africa. When he left in 132, the Jews began their rebellion on a large scale. Once again a Jewish attempt to defeat the Romans and to bring the messianic era had failed. The Bar Kochba revolt was named after Simon ben Kosevah, who was given the surname Bar Kochba (“Son of the Star”) by Rabbi Akiva. Documents discovered in the modern era Rabbi Akiva. Those who supported him saw him as a messianic figure. The rebellion was crushed by the Roman commander Julius Severus. Judea belongs to the Jews!" Killing more than half a million Jews and destroying almost a thousand villages, the Bar Kochba Revolt (132-35) was a major event in Jewish history and a blotch on the reputation of the good emperor Hadrian.The revolt was named for a man called Shimon, on coins, Bar Kosibah, on papyrus, Bar Kozibah, on rabbinic literature, and Bar Kokhba, in Christian writing. The Jews were handed expectations of a homeland and a Holy Temple, but in the end were persecuted and sold into slavery. Those that exist in Talmud, Midrash and Church Father Euseblus are largely legendary. At the end of the Bar Kochba revolt, Hadrian decided that the way not to have another one is to cut off the Jews from connection to their beloved land. Shimon Bar-Kokhba was the leader of the Jewish revolt against Rome between 132 and 135 C.E. Answer: The Bar Kokhba revolt was a series of battles from AD 132 to 135 waged against the Roman Empire by Jews led by Simeon bar Kosba, who made messianic claims and who was renamed Bar Kokhba (“Son of the Star”) by an influential rabbi. He appointed Tinneius Rufus governor of Judea. In 135 C.E., Hadrian’s army besieged Bethar and on the 9th of Av, the Jewish fast day commemorating the destruction of the first and second Holy Temples, the walls of Bethar fell. Keter Publishing House Ltd., Jerusalem, 1973. It was the type of war the Romans tried to forget. In particular, the need to pay a capitation tax to the Temple of Jupiter in Rome must have made the Jews very unhappy. Killing more than half a million Jews and destroying almost a thousand villages, the Bar Kochba Revolt (132-35) was a major event in Jewish history and a blotch on the reputation of the good emperor Hadrian.The revolt was named for a man called Shimon, on coins, Bar Kosibah, on papyrus, Bar Kozibah, on rabbinic literature, and Bar Kokhba, in Christian writing. The revolt did not begin until it had found its leader. The Bar Kochba Revolt (132–136 CE) was the third and final war between the Jewish people and the Roman Empire. Bar Kokhba Revolt Coin inscribed with the word "Jerusalem" and a picture of a date palm. According to the second-century Roman historian Lucius Cassius Dio, the construction of the city, with a temple to the god Jupiter in the center, was itself the spark that ignited the rebellion: The Jewish extremists could not tolerate the fact that a pagan Roman city was being built on the ruins of Jerusalem. It would continue for the next three years and is more commonly known for its leader, Simeon bar Kokhba, as the Bar-Kokhba Revolt. Simon ben Kosevah, or Cosibah, known to posterity as Bar Kokhba (Hebrew: שמעון בן כוסבה ‎; died 135 CE), was a Jewish military leader who led the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE. In fact, Jesus never wanted the Gentiles to become separated from their Hebrew roots. Similar disturbances fol­lowed in Cyprus and Mesopotamia. “Bar Kokba and Bar Kokba War.” Funk and Wagnalls Co. London, 1902. How to say bar Kokhba revolt in English? The first believers in Jesus were recognized as Jews. After a fierce battle, every Jew in Bethar was killed. 24:17 (“A star shall go forth from Jacob”), taken to refer to the messiah. H.H. Bar Kochba. In 132, a revolt led by Bar Kokhba quickly spread from Modi'in across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Jerusalem. It was not until the reign of the Roman emperor Trajan (98-­117 C.E.) The historical memory of the Bar Kochba Revolt has been much weaker than that of the Jewish revolt of 70 CE, perhaps because of the spectacular tragedy of the Temple’s destruction, perhaps because no detailed history of it still survives today. The Bar Kochba Revolt: A Disaster Celebrated by Zionists on Lag Ba'Omer . From letters and documents unearthed in the Judean Desert we know the real name of the leader to have been Simeon bar Kosiba. A History of the Jewish People. Reprinted with permission from From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple & Rabbinic Judaism (Ktav). Kantor, Morris. The sobriquet Bar Kokhba, “Son of a Star,” was given to him in accord with Num. Bar Kokhba Revolt coinage were coins issued by the Judaean rebel state, headed by Simon Bar Kokhba, during the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire of 132-135 CE. During the revolt itself, the Jews gained enormous amounts of land, only to be pushed back and crushed in the final battle of Bethar. Little is known of the actual course of the revolt and of Rome’s successful attempt to regain control. that the problems came to the surface. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1969. The story of Bar-Kokhba was a legend in Jewish history - some actually believed he wasn't a real person. The tannaim were divided, some supporting his rebellion, others not. On Lag Ba'Omer, Israeli children celebrate the Jewish rebels' victory over the Romans 2,000 years ago. The tannaim were divided, some supporting his rebellion, others not. Simeon Bar Kochba (died 135) led the last Jewish revolt against Roman rule in Palestine, 132-135. History Until 1880: Israel Pocket Library. Bar Kochba observed Jewish law, and it may be stated that the documents confirm the close relationship be­tween this “messiah” and tannaitic Judaism. When the Roman author Cornelius Fronto wrote a letter to the emperor Marcus Aurelius on the occasion of the destruction of a legion by the Parthians (in 162 AD), he compared it to the Bar Kochba revolt, implicitly admitting that the latter had been a defeat. From letters and documents unearthed in the Judean Desert we know the real name of the leader to have been Simeon bar Kosiba. Introduction. Bethar was a vital military stronghold because of its strategic location on a mountain ridge overlooking both the Valley of Sorek and the important Jerusalem-Bet Guvrin Road. Simeon Bar Kokhba, Simeon Bar Kochba (died 135) led the last Jewish revolt against Roman rule in Palestine, 132-135. The revolt was ultimately unsuccessful, and Jerusalem paid a heavy toll for the rebellion. With the fall of Jerusalem and then Bethar, a fortress on the seacoast south of Caesarea where Bar Kokhba was slain, the rebellion was crushed in 135. Eliav , Y. , “ Hadrian’s Actions in the Jerusalem Temple Mount according to Cassius Dio and Xiphilini Manus ,” Jewish Studies Quarterly 4 ( 1997 ). The revolt did not begin until it had found its leader. Jerusalem was retaken and future Jewish settlement there was prohibited by Hadrian. His state was conquered by the Romans in 135 following a two-year war. In the years following the revolt, Hadrian discriminated against all Judeo-Christian sects, but the worst persecution was directed against religious Jews. The Bar Kokhba Revolt and Hadrian’s Religious Policy Giovanni Battista Bazzana The many scholarly opinions collected in a volume published ten years ago and devoted to the study of the period between the two Jewish uprisings of 66 and 132 were all in agreement on the thick darkness that still enshrouds the historical contours of the fateful war associated with the name of Bar Kokhba1. The turning point of the war came when Hadrian sent into Judea one of his best generals from Britain, Julius Severus, along with former governor of Germania, Hadrianus Quintus Lollius Urbicus. By that time, there were 12 army legions from Egypt, Britain, Syria and other areas in Judea. The first conflict, known as the Jewish War or the First Revolt, was fought from A.D. 66 to 70; the second conflict, known as the Bar Kokhba War, raged from A.D. 132 to 135. Messianism was abstracted and spiritualized, and rabbinical political thought becam… The Jews then satisfied themselves with preparing secretly in case a rebellion would later become necessary. The Bar Kokhba revolt (Hebrew: מֶרֶד בַּר כּוֹכְבָא ‎; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.Fought circa 132–136 CE, [5] it was the last of three major Jewish–Roman wars, so it is also known as The Third Jewish–Roman War or The Third Jewish Revolt. Bar Kokhba Revolt coinage were coins issued by the Judaean rebel state, headed by Simon Bar Kokhba, during the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire of 132-135 AD. Hadrian sent one of his finest generals, and he succeeded in turning the tide by means of a series of sieges, starving out the rebels in their strongholds and places of refuge. As prayer had replaced sacrifice, Torah, in the form of the Mishnah, had now replaced messianism. It was in this context, as well as on the basis of the strong messianic yearnings we have observed already, that some ele­ments in the Jewish population of Palestine began preparing for revolt in the 120’s. In 135 C.E., Hadrians army besieged Bethar and on the 9th of Av, the Jewish fast day commemorating the … This rebellion later became known as the Bar-Kokhba revolt. Exile Part 38. The Jews then invaded the coastal region and the Romans began sea battles against them. Bar Kochba died in the defense of besieged Bethar. Eliav , Y. , “ Hadrian’s Actions in the Jerusalem Temple Mount according to Cassius Dio and Xiphilini Manus ,” Jewish Studies Quarterly 4 ( 1997 ). "the ten cities"), league or administrative grouping of Syrian-Greek cities situated in southern Syria, the northern Jordan Valley, an… Judaea, Second Revolt (Bar Kokhba War), 132-136 CE. With the accession of the emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161 C.E. Soon after, Hadrian founded a city of his own in Jerusalem called Aelia Capitolina, where he erected a temple to the Greek god Zeus. The second-century sage was the inspiration for many legends and may have died as a martyr. In many ways, the Bar Kochba Revolt differed markedly from its predecessors. The final battle of the war took place in Bethar, Bar-Kokhba’s headquarters, which housed both the Sanhedrin (Jewish High Court) and the home of the Nasi (leader). Writes Casius Dio, From references in the Talmud, the Dead Sea Scrolls , and Roman sources, he emerges as a self-confident and decisive but temperamental man of great vigor and valor. Judean settlements were not rebuilt. Bar Kokhba Revolt - "/his/ - History & Humanities" is 4chan's board for discussing and debating history. Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem. The Romans sought to extinguish Jewish presence in Jerusalem by renaming it Aelia Capitolina, and by changing Israel to Palestine. The Bar-Kokhba Rebellion (132-136 AD), was the third great war against the Romans. Daily Mail has an interesting article (complete with several high-res pictures) about a cave system used by Jews in the late first century. The final battle of the war took place in Bethar, Bar-Kokhbas headquarters, which housed both the Sanhedrin (Jewish High Court) and the home of the Nasi (leader). It followed a long period of tension and violence, marked by the first Jewish uprising of 66-70 CE, which ended with the destruction of … he had to spend his first year mopping up the last of the rebels. Download our mobile app for on-the-go access to the Jewish Virtual Library, Holy Temple, Shimon Bar-Kokhba, Rabbi Akiva, © 1998 - 2021 American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. The last fortress to fall was Betar, not far to the southwest of Jerusalem, which was captured by the Romans during the summer of 136 C.E. Indeed, the execution of these rabbis, together with the biblical story of the binding of Isaac, would serve as a paradigm for Jewish martyrdom (termed kiddush hashem, “sanctification of God’s name”) in the medieval and modern periods. Media in category "Bar Kokhba revolt" The following 13 files are in this category, out of 13 total. According to the Christian church historian Eusebius (c.260-c.340), Simon claimed to be a luminary who had come down to the Jews from heaven (History of the church 4.6.2). Jerusalem was turned into a pagan city called Aelia Capitolina and the Jews were forbidden to live there. Bar-Kokhba united his army in Judea and led the Jews in battle. Bar-Kochba Simon bar Kokhba (Hebrew: שמעון בר כוכבא ‎) (died CE 135) was the Jewish leader of what is known as the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE, establishing an independent Jewish state which he ruled for three years as Nasi ("Prince"). Sources: Encyclopedia Judaica. Judea was made part of the province of Syria. In the course of the revolt, the rebels took 50 fortifications. The war began as a guerrilla struggle against Rome in 132 C.E. They seized towns and fortified them with walls and subterranean passages. This was led by Simeon Bar-Kokhba, (Son of a Star) a charismatic leader, who many regarded as the Messiah, foretold in the Book of Numbers in the Old Testament . It begins with Hadrian, functional ruler of the Roman Empire in AD 130, and a survey of his world. Bar Kochba silver Shekel/tetradrachm. he Bar Kokhba revolt (Hebrew: מרד בר כוכבא‎ or mered Bar Kokhba), was a rebellion of the Jews of Judea Province, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire. It is possible that sacrifices were now reinstituted and that work was begun on rebuilding the sanctuary. 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