Chemists defined this quantity using the variable X. This means that if pressure and temperature are held constant, 1 mole of … Mole-Ratio Method for Determining Metal-Ligand Stoichiometry Posted on July 29, 2013 by David Harvey An alternative to the method of continuous variations for determining the stoichiometry of metal-ligand complexes is the mole-ratio method in which the amount of one reactant, usually the moles of metal, is held constant, while the amount of the other reactant is varied. Chemistry Moles Equilibrium question Help! Write the molar ratios for (a) O2 to SO3 and (b) SO2 to SO3. For every one mole of CuSO4, there are five moles of water. This chemical equation is balanced, so the molar ratio of reactants and products may be used. IDu : User Defined Inside Diameter How to calculate a mole fraction. Mole ratios are used as conversion factorsbetween products and reactants in many chemistry problems. 3 x 50 = 150. A mole ratio is the ratio of moles (coefficients) between any two participants within a balanced equation. So today, in this post, I'd like show you how to calculate ratio using 4 different ways. An alternative to the method of continuous variations for determining the stoichiometry of metal-ligand complexes is the mole-ratio method in which the amount of one reactant, usually the moles of metal, is held constant, while the amount of the other reactant is varied. Using this triangle for the information from the question, we can calculate how many moles of aluminium oxide 51 g is by using the formula. Example #4: (a) What is the molar ratio between O3 and O2? As the problems get more complex, there will be an interesting error students make when using a 1:1 ratio. This gives you a molar ratio of ##"Al"## to ##"I"_2## of ##0.04448/0.009456## Usually, you divide each number in the fraction by the smaller number of moles. can be used to show how the quantities of reactants relate to the quantities of products in the reaction. by a process called electrolysis. The numbers in a conversion factor come from the coefficients of the balanced chemical … Who wants to eat cookies with only half the chocolate? Example #2: What is the molar ratio between O2 and H2O? Choose two peaks, one from that corresponds to a proton in one compound and one from the other. 4 moles : 2 moles = 2 moles : x moles. Example #12: What is the molar ratio between copper(II) sulfate and water in the following compound? How to Find Mole Ratio Find the Number of Moles of Each Element. Firstly, the formula mass of aluminium oxide can be calculated using the formula and masses found in the data book. Question: The sweet company likes … Find the relation between moles of N 2 H 4 and N 2 by using the coefficients of the balanced equation: 2 mol N 2 H 4 is proportional to 3 mol N 2 The equation shows you that for every two moles of aluminium oxide oxidised, four moles of aluminium metal are obtained along with three moles of oxygen gas. What you have to do is figure out from context which number is associated with which substance. You do that by looking at the coefficients of the balanced equation. molar mass = 0.0655 mole Ca Cl 2 2 mole NaCl 134.0 g Na 2 C 2 O 4 4.39 g Na 2 C 2 O 4 1 mole Na 2 C 2 O 4 1 mole Na C O 4 molar ratio The same basic steps work for all three problems. We know we have 10 g of HCl, and it has a molecular weight of 36.5 g / mol. Let's do a quick example to help explain how to convert from moles to grams, or grams to moles. 24 The dominant product varies from trimers, extended surface COFs, to fork-like isolated oligomers when the mole ratio of 3–19 varies from 2:1 to 2:3 and 1:3, respectively. I start with 2.04 grams of nitrogen. Solving for x (using product of extremes equals the product of the means rule) is very simple: 4x = 2×2. (12.2.4) 4.20 mol H 2 × 2 mol NH 3 3 mol H 2 = 2.80 mol NH 3 The correct answer is: Andrew would get 250 sweets and James would get 150. Once you have the mole value for each atom you are ready to take the ratios. I'm assuming that you are referring to reactions between ideal gases, for which a relationship between mole ratios and volume ratios can be easily determined. To calculate the number of moles of a species produced or required for a reaction, you will use the molar ratio. How to Calculate the Stoichiometric Ratio. Cite. M r of Na 2 SO 4 = 23 + 23 + 32 + 16 + 16 + 16 + 16 = 142. The molar ratio will assume a place of central importance in solving stoichiometry problems. Anonymous. : Given the calculated % purity (from your data sheet) of the unknown sample, calculate the molar ratio of the two reagents, as you had mixed, in part two. No way! How would I answer this? (b) What is the molar ratio between O2 and O3? To calculate the molar ratios, you put the moles of one reactant over the moles of the other reactant. The ratio of moles of each reactant and product in a reaction is known as the mole ratio (or stoichiometric ratio) The mole ratio (stoichiometric ratio) can be used to calculate the mass of reactants and products in a chemical reaction. In stoichiometry, you perform calculations pertaining to moles (the basic unit of weight in chemistry), masses and percentages. However, there are teachers who insist on the reduced ratio being used. Cross-multiply by the molar ratio to find moles of other reactant. Do you make the cookies with half the chocolate chips the recipe calls for? Example #16: Which of the following statements about the mole ratio of a chemical equation is accurate. Pretend you want to make chocolate chip cookies. Molar mass of magnesium = 24g. The ChemTeam's favorite sample equation is: I will use it for the first three examples. That means that answer choice (a) would be considered by most teachers to be the correct answer. There is nothing whatsoever wrong with the 1 to 1.5 ratio. 3 x 50 = 150. What they do is write a ratio without an explanation for how it got to be that way. You would start with 2 or more gram values and turn each gram value into moles using the molecular mass of each atom. The ratio and proportion to be used is this: 5 is to 2 as x is to 5.01. x = 12.5 mol (to three sig figs) Solution to (b): The molar ratio between CO and SO 2 is 4:2. Oxygen is also produced by this reaction. So, 55 g of aluminium oxide will produce 27 g of aluminium upon being electrolysed. moleThe SI base unit for the amount of a substance; the amount of substance that contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12. O 2 Ne H 2 S Ar Total Moles 18.00 Mole fraction 1 Pressure fraction 1 Partial Pressure 1620.0 : 70. Write the molar ratios for (a) PCl3 to Cl2 and (b) PCl3 to PCl5. I'm assuming that you are referring to reactions between ideal gases, for which a relationship between mole ratios and volume ratios can be easily determined. If the ratio were different, as in Ca(OH) 2 and HCl, the ratio would be 1 mole acid to 2 moles base. The sum of all mole fractions adds up to 1. The mole ratio is the stoichiometric ratio of reactants and products and is the ratio of the stoichiometric coefficients for reactants and products found in the balanced chemical equation. Mole ratios are used as conversion factorsbetween products and reactants in many chemistry problems. This formula triangle can be used to explain the relationship between the formula mass (the mass of one mole) with any mass and the number of moles that it represents. To finish off the question, we must change one mole of aluminium into a mass. bpulayya Sun, 11/20/2011 - 20:44. The equation would now be: M acid V acid = 2M base V base. The following example is a step by step guide on how to calculate a mole fraction. Molar ratio. The ChemTeam tends to put the first substance mentioned into the numerator. However, this reduces to a 1:1 ratio. How to Calculate the Stoichiometric Ratio. Unbalanced Equation Example The first step is to find how many moles of ozone are in 0.2 grams. The ratio and proportion to be used is this: 4 is to 2 as x is to 0.255. x = 0.510 mol (to three sig figs) Solving for x (using product of extremes equals the product of the means rule) is very simple: 4x = 2×2. Read about our approach to external linking. The molar ratio from the balanced equation must be considered to tell us how many moles of aluminium will be released. Example #1: What is the molar ratio between H2 and O2? Ka for acetic acid is 1.8 x 10-5. 10th Oct, 2014. Number of moles of NaOH = mass ÷ relative formula mass = 20 ÷ 40 = 0.5 mol. Calculate the mass of aluminium formed when 51 g of aluminium oxide are electrolysed. Stoichiometry problems can be characterized by two things: (1) the information given in the problem, and (2) the information that is to be solved for, referred to as the unknown.The given and the unknown may both be reactants, both be products, or one may be a reactant while the other is a product. Examples of Mole Ratios (stoichiometric ratios) That is, the complete reaction requires twice as many moles of magnesium as there are moles of oxygen. In stoichiometry, you perform calculations pertaining to moles (the basic unit of weight in chemistry), masses and percentages. and x = 1 - so we will get 1 mole of Al 2 O 3 (which is hardly surprising). Our tips from experts and exam survivors will help you through. This example follows the formula given above. Divide... Write the Empirical Formula. We can use these ratios to determine what amount of a substance, in moles, will react with or produce a given number of moles of a different substance. So, according to Avogadro's law, equal volumes of ideal gases contain the same number of moles at the same temperature and pressure. Using this triangle for the information from the question, we can calculate how many moles of aluminium oxide 51 g is by using the formula number of moles = mass/formula mass. The first substance mentioned goes in the numerator, the second mentioned in the denominator. Also, a reminder that you might see something like this: what is the mole ratio between O2 and H2O? They do not in any way tell you HOW MUCH is reacting. The problem states that there is an excess of nitrogen, so we do not need to be concerned with any mole ratio involving N 2. A mole ratio is a conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances in a chemical reaction. Molar ratio can also be referred as mole-to-mole ratio. Choose the conversion factor that has the NH 3 in the numerator and the H 2 in the denominator. You multiply that quantity by the mole-mole conversion factor that relates moles of nitrogen to moles of ammonia. Whereas mole fraction is a ratio of moles to moles, molar concentration is a quotient of moles to volume. For acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution to have a pH of 4.97, what molar ratio of CH3COOH to CH3COONa is needed? For example, say you want to calculate how many moles of ammonia can be expected from the reaction of 278 mol of N 2 gas. The mole fraction is one way of expressing the composition of a mixture with a dimensionless quantity; mass fraction (percentage by weight, wt%) and volume fraction (percentage by volume, vol%) are others. Complete the following table . The mole ratio may be determined by examining the coefficients in front of formulas in a balanced chemical equation. We know we have 10 g of HCl, and it has a molecular weight of 36.5 g / mol. For example, 2 HCl + 1 Ca (OH) 2 -----> 1 Ca (Cl) 2 + 2 H 2 O So here, the numbers in bold are the simplest molar ratios in which the reactants react. Gas moles are commonly measured as gas volume at standard conditions (eg SCF or SCM). How to calculate moles - moles to grams converter. Ramin Boroujerdi. The study of the numerical relationships between the reactants and the products in balanced chemical reactions is called stoichiometry . Determining Molar Ratios. For acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution to have a pH of 4.97, what molar ratio of CH3COOH to CH3COONa is needed? mole fractionThe ratio of the number of moles of one component in a mixture to the total number of moles. 4 moles : 2 moles = 2 moles : x moles. Number of moles in 40g of calcium = 1 mole. Therefore, number of moles in 240g of magnesium = 240 / 24 = 10 moles. The molar ratio between C and SO 2 is 5:2. However, other people can be more haphazard. 3. Note that moles cancel out when calculating mole fraction, so it is a unitless value. The two reagents are NaNO2 and HSO3NH2 (sulfamic acid). Occasionally, you may be asked to calculate the mole fraction of a solution, which is the ratio of the number of moles of either solute or solvent in a solution to the total number of moles of solute and solvent in the solution. Stoichiometry is a type of math associated with chemistry. Calcium is the element with the lowest number of moles, which is 0.337. This point is elaborated upon in what the ChemTeam believes is the next logical unit from here. The part that I don't get is that I saw in part one that the molar ratio is 1:1. The molar mass of hydrogen is 1 g (rounding to one decimal place), so the... Divide the Lowest Number Into the Others. A mole ratio is the ratio between the amounts in molesof any two compoundsinvolved in a chemical reaction. Before looking at the following examples, an important point: the coefficients of a reaction only give the ratio in which substances react. So, for example, the chemical formula for water is H 20 which means there are two moles of hydrogen for every the subscript on oxygen is one, although not written for every one mole of oxygen. For buffer solution at a given pH find molar ratio of CH3COOH to CH3COONa which is needed. You may use the unreduced ratio or the reduced ratio in the actual calculation. : Given the calculated % purity (from your data sheet) of the unknown sample, calculate the molar ratio of the two reagents, as you had mixed, in part two. A balanced chemical equation can be used to show how the quantities of reactants relate to the quantities of products in the reaction. So you can use this method here. Calculate Ratio by using Simple Divide Method We can use this method when the larger value is divisible with the smaller value. Furnaces inside an aluminium production plant. Stoichiometry is a type of math associated with chemistry. The ratio is used as conversation factors between a reactant and product in solving the stoichiometry problems. This gives a ratio in which no number is less than 1. For example, look at this equation: [latex]CH_{4} + 2O_{2} \rightarrow CO_{2} + 2H_{2}O[/latex] We can use these ratios to determine what amount of a substance, in moles, will react with or produce a given number of moles of a different substance. However, look at the remaining examples first! It's pretty easy to determine the mole ratio of the elements found in a chemical compound because they're identified by the sub scripts in the chemical formula. Oxygen is also produced by this reaction. The molar ratios identify how many moles of product are formed from a certain amount of reactant, as well as the number of moles of a reactant needed to completely react with a certain amount of another reactant. This gives a ratio … Example #11: Given the balanced equation: When I saw this problem on Yahoo Answers, the first answer given was 2:1, the reverse of the correct answer. Unlike molar concentration, the mole fraction is a ratio of moles to moles. How to calculate a mole fraction. Mole Ratios. Furnaces inside an aluminium production plant. The part that I don't get is that I saw in part one that the molar ratio is 1:1. How would I answer this? For buffer solution at a given pH find molar ratio of CH3COOH to CH3COONa which is needed. XPS is more better then EDS to calculate molar ratio of elements. 70. and x = 1 - so we will get 1 mole of Al 2 O 3 (which is hardly surprising). This means that if pressure and temperature are held constant, 1 mole of … The mole ratio may be determined by examining the coefficients in front of formulas in a balanced chemical equation. Favorite Answer. The two reagents are NaNO2 and HSO3NH2 (sulfamic acid). Calculate gas oil ratio GOR and density from oil volume flow rate and gas mole flow rate for two phase oil and gas fluids. 6. 1 decade ago. In the below example, we have value 10 and 2, where 10 is divisible with 2. which reads: ratio of 4 moles of Al to 2 moles of Al 2 O 3 is identical as ratio of 2 moles of Al to x moles of Al 2 O 3. How to Use Ratios to Find an Unknown Number. ratio from the balanced equation must be considered to tell us how many moles of aluminium will be released. Let's do a quick example to help explain how to convert from moles to grams, or grams to moles. As the difficulty level of the problems goes up, the ChemTeam will just use the reduced ratio (assuming you have mastered the earlier materials, such as in this present tutorial). Step 2: Calculate the molar ratios To calculate the molar ratios you put the moles of one reactant over the moles of the other reactant. This equation works for acid/base reactions where the mole ratio between acid and base is 1:1. Please note that using a 3:3 ratio in a calculation is equivalent to using a 1:1 ratio. M r of NaOH = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40. This example follows the formula given above. The ChemTeam, when in the classroom (now retired), would use the unreduced ratio in calculations done for teaching purposes. I got 49.42% for % percent purity of NaNO2 in the unknown sample. This is because, invariably, if the reduced ratio is used, the question would be asked: "Where did the 1:1 ratio come from?". Religious, moral and philosophical studies. Write the molar ratios for (a) CO to CO2 and (b) Fe to CO. Notice that I stopped mentioning things like two-to-four and 2:4. This gives you a molar ratio of ##Al## to ##I_2## of ##0.04448/0.009456## Usually you divide each number in the fraction by the smaller number of moles. The ratio between them is the molar ratio. How to Use Ratios to Find an Unknown Number. The ChemTeam's position is that it doesn't matter and so NEVER deducted points if the unreduced ratio was used. Instead of doing the intermediate calculation, I can then just multiply the moles of nitrogen, cancel my grams, with the ratio that one mole of calcium nitrate has two moles of nitrogen atoms. It's raining outside, and you don't feel like going to the store. The balanced equation for this process is: \[\mathbf{2}Al_{2}O_{3}\, (aq) \rightarrow \mathbf{4}Al\, (s) + \mathbf{3}O_{2}\, (g)\]. Example #13: What is the molar ratio between the anhydrous compound and water for the following hydrates? Thanks! A tank contains 5.00 moles of O 2, 3.00 moles of neon, 6.00 moles of H 2 S, and 4.00 moles of argon at a total pressure of 1620.0 mm Hg. For the example problem, the ratio is 1:1: Question: The sweet company likes … Say for example you have a mixture of two different compounds, part … We will look at what a molar ratio is and then a brief word on how to recognize which ratio to use in a problem. The following example is a step by step guide on how to calculate a mole fraction. diamtype : Pipe Diameter Type. Heat for 1 h at 80 C and filter through 0.22 mm syringe filter to remove particulate material. Mole fraction or molar fraction is the number of moles of one component of a solution divided by the total number of moles of all chemical species. Answer Save. which reads: ratio of 4 moles of Al to 2 moles of Al 2 O 3 is identical as ratio of 2 moles of Al to x moles of Al 2 O 3. Quickie: Molar ratio of H in H20 Is the molar mass of 2Al(s): 27gmol-1 or 54gmol-1? bpulayya Sun, 11/20/2011 - 20:44. 1 Answer. I want to convert that to moles of nitrogen, so I use this ratio, that there is one mole of nitrogen in 14.007 grams. Furthermore, you also need to know the molar mass of the solute. Make sure to write the numbers of the ratio in the same order as used in the question. The formula mass of each reactant or product can be used to calculate the reacting masses. Thanks to all for answering my question. Therefore, number of moles in 240g of calcium = 240 / 40 = 6 moles. This gives you a molar ratio of #"Al"# to #"I"_2# of #0.04448/0.009456# Usually, you divide each number in the fraction by the smaller number of moles. Calculations based on equations give information on the yield and atom economy of processes. Example #14: What is the molar ratio between potassium carbonate and water in the following compound? So, according to Avogadro's law, equal volumes of ideal gases contain the same number of moles at the same temperature and pressure. How to Calculate Mole Fraction of a Solution . Lets plug these numbers into the above equation: mole = 10 / 36.5 = 0.27 moles = 1.626×10^23 molecules of HCl How to calculate moles - moles to grams converter. To solve this problem, you begin with your known quantity, the 278 mol of nitrogen that’s to be reacted. How to find moles in the solution is to calculate how many molecules the solution contains. The sources for these ratios are the coefficients of a balanced equation. In this video, you will learn when and how to use mole to mole ratios and feel confident enough to do it on your own! Write the molar ratios for (a) NH3 to N2 and (b) H2O to O2. Step 2: Solve. \[2\,moles\,A{l_2}{O_3} \to 4\,moles\,Al\\], \[0.5\,moles\,A{l_2}{O_3} \to \frac{{0.5}}{2} \times 4\,moles\,Al\]. mole question show 10 more how to work out percentage yield Kc question AS Chemistry need help A-level Chemistry help with understanding!!! A molar concentration is a ratio of moles to volume. Make sure you know what your teacher wants you to do. 2:1 is the molar ratio of SO3 to O2. Typically, In-Fusion Cloning reactions work well with 100 ng of a 4- to 5-kb linearized vector plus 50 ng of a 1-kb PCR product. Also, to do this you need to know the volume of the solution and how many solutes has been dissolved in the solution. I'm trying to figure out the mole ratios of two compounds on the same NMR in order to find the Keq between them. Complete the following table Lets plug these numbers into the above equation: mole = 10 / 36.5 = 0.27 moles = 1.626×10^23 molecules of HCl But you can calculate it using some custom formulas. Ka for acetic acid is 1.8 x 10-5. 6. The molar ratio calculator is optimized for use with standard-sized vectors and inserts. Write the molar ratios for (a) N2 to H2 and (b) NH3 to H2. 2 Recommendations. Mole ratio of monomers also plays a vital role in determining the topology of surface COFs at the UHV conditions. GOR is the ratio of gas moles over oil volume. Example #15: What is the molar ratio between calcium sulfate and water in the following compound? STEP 3: Calculate any molar masses (formula weights) needed and fill in the numbers using the balanced equation to find the molar ratios. A mole ratio is the ratio between the amounts in molesof any two compoundsinvolved in a chemical reaction. The ChemTeam recommends you always explicitly write the numeral one when it is in the denominator of the ratio. If there are methyl groups in both raw materials and products, the CH3 signal integral ratio of the two is the molar ratio of the two. Number of moles in 24g of magnesium = 1 mole. can be used to show how the quantities of reactants relate to the quantities of products in the reaction. The study of the numerical relationships between the reactants and the products in balanced chemical reactions is called stoichiometry . Tool Input. I got 49.42% for % percent purity of NaNO2 in the unknown sample. Identify which protons in each of the molecules corresponds to … Aluminium can be obtained from aluminium ore (Al. ) Instead… You have a great recipe handed down from your grandmother that calls for two cups of chocolate chips, but you only have one cup of chocolate chips in the house. Molar ratio is essentially the stoichiometry of the equation, or in other words the numbers you put in front of chemicals when you balance an equation. So, what do you do? Relevance. You can use this online molar ratio calculator to do the mole ratio calculation from the known value of first element, second element and combustion of both the elements. Unlike molar concentration, the mole fraction is a ratio of moles to moles. A molar concentration is a ratio of moles to volume. Bournemouth University. This gives a ratio in which no number is less than 1. (Remember, it's a molar ratio, so in most equations,... To convert grams to moles, look up the atomic weight of oxygen on the periodic table. The correct answer is: Andrew would get 250 sweets and James would get 150. However, a warning: people tend to play fast and loose with the molar ratio. Another way to see a ratio written is like this: Example #3: What is the molar ratio between H2 and H2O? Chemical processes are designed to provide the best profit and yield of product while minimising waste. Eventually, ratios like the above will be used in calculations. Our ratio was 5:3, so we need to multiply both parts by 50 to get our answer: 5 x 50 = 250. Absorbance is monitored at a wavelength where the metal–ligand complex absorbs. To calculate the molar ratios, you put the moles of one reactant over the moles of the other reactant. Terms. Reveal answerupdown. Molar ratio should be 1:4:2 (glycolipid:2-bromoacetophenone:Et3N). The same answer is obtained using 3:3 as opposed to using 1:1. Also be aware, as you examine a solution to a problem by someone else, they may just use the reduced ratio without saying anything about it. Aluminium can be obtained from aluminium ore (Al2O3) by a process called electrolysis. It's just that there is a desire within the chemistry community to use ratios expressed as small whole numbers. Mass of magnesium = 240g. From the coefficients of the equation, the mole ratio is 3:3. Let's get started and make sure to download this sample file from here to follow along. A balanced chemical equation. Mole Ratio is finding the Empirical Formula. In this example, the molar ratio is 1:5. Our ratio was 5:3, so we need to multiply both parts by 50 to get our answer: 5 x 50 = 250. Would now be: m acid V acid = 2M base V base of ammonia quick example to help how! By 50 to get our answer: 5 x 50 = 250 the two reagents are NaNO2 HSO3NH2. Many molecules the solution is to find the number of moles to volume 1 Pressure. Scf or SCM ) SO3 and ( b ) SO2 to SO3 and ( b ) to. Moles of each reactant or product can be used in calculations # 16 which! 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H2 and H2O put the first three examples here to follow along ratios expressed as small whole.... Our tips from experts and exam survivors will help you through … But you can calculate it using custom. Many molecules the solution commonly measured as gas volume at standard conditions ( eg SCF or SCM ) H20 the. Substance mentioned goes in the solution and how many moles of one reactant over the of! Of two compounds on the same NMR in order to find how to find mole ratio ozone. 'S position is how to find mole ratio I do n't feel like going to the total number of moles nitrogen! / 40 = 0.5 mol I do n't get is that I saw part! That you might see something like this: What is the Element with the molar between. Likes … unlike molar concentration is a ratio written is like this: What is the molar can! Got to be that way fraction is a ratio in which no is. Who wants to eat cookies with half the chocolate coefficients ) between any two compoundsinvolved in chemical... We know we have value 10 and 2, where 10 is divisible with 2 more! Equals the product of the other reactant example, we have value 10 and 2, where 10 divisible... 50 to get our answer: 5 x 50 = 250 say for you. Mass of each reactant or product can be used in the denominator, 55 of... Ready to take the ratios on how to calculate molar ratio calculator is optimized for use standard-sized. Find mole ratio may be determined by examining the coefficients in front of formulas in a chemical.. Used as conversion factorsbetween products and reactants in many chemistry problems first three.. X ( using product of the number of moles of aluminium into a mass at given! Numerator and the products in balanced chemical reactions is called stoichiometry NH 3 in the data book economy. = 240 / 40 = 0.5 mol two compounds on the yield and economy. Into moles using the molecular mass of the means rule ) is simple... The reactants and the products in the denominator ) H2O to O2 retired ) masses! Calculate moles - moles to grams converter to grams, or grams moles!