In compensation, Francis was allowed to succeed the childless Gian Gastone, last of the Medici grand dukes of Tuscany. Portret van Frans van Lotharingen (Frans I), … Francis was brought up in Vienna with Maria Theresa with the understanding that they were to be married, and a real affection arose between them. The wedding was held on February 14, 1736. He led Austria into the French Revolutionary Wars, and later joined the Second and Third Coalitions against Napoleon. He was not excited about this position, but Maria wanted him closer to her. On December 17, 1738 the couple traveled south, accompanied by his brother Charles to visit Florence for three months. Fran­cis was born in Flo­rence, the cap­i­tal of Tus­cany, where his fa­ther reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. In October 1738 he was back in Vienna. 10. Another son was the Emperor Leopold II. etc. Though he had a happy childhood surrounded by his many siblings, his family knew Francis was likely to be a future Emperor (his uncle Joseph had no surviving issue from either of his two marriage… Although fighting stopped after the preliminary peace, the final peace settlement had to wait until the death of the last Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone in 1737, to allow the territorial exchanges provided for by the peace settlement to go into effect. Francis II (German: Franz II. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. He also served as the first president of the German Confederationfollo… Role Title Holding Repository; creatorOf: Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1708-1765. Updates? During a subsequent visit to England, Francis was made a Master Mason at another specially convened lodge at Houghton Hall, the Norfolk estate of British Prime Minister Robert Walpole. English: HM Francis I ( 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) (born as François Stephen, later Francis III Stephen, Duke of Lorraine) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany. etc. Membership: Holy Roman Empire Association, Charter of the Holy Roman Empire Association, Heraldic Council of the Holy Roman Empire, Court of Nobility of the Holy Roman Empire, Council of the Holy Roman Empire Association, Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire, Imperial immediacy of the Holy Roman Empire, Imperial Household of the Holy Roman Emperor, Powers and Titles of the Holy Roman Emperor, Order of the Ancient Nobility of the Four Emperors, Order of the Defeated Dragon - Ordo Draconum, Association of the Counts Arundell of Wardour, Jesus Christ - Jesus of Nazareth - Son of God, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV of Wittelsbach, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Francis I (German: Franz Stefan; Italian: Francesco Stefano; English: Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. He was very close to his brother and sister Anne Charlotte. For the two years between 1804 and 1806, Francis used the title and style by the grace of God electedRoman Emperor, always August, hereditaryEmperor of Austriaand he was called the Emperor of both Germany and Austria. In June 1732 he agreed to go to Pressburg. Francis and the House of Lorraine received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in the peace treaty that ended that war. His marriage to Maria Theresa, who was Charles’s heiress, took place on Feb. 12, 1736. Francis I, (born Dec. 8, 1708, Nancy, Duchy of Lorraine—died Aug. 18, 1765, Innsbruck, Austria), Holy Roman emperor from Sept. 13, 1745; he was duke of Lorraine (as Francis Stephen) from 1729 to 1735 and grand duke of Tuscany from 1737. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real power of those positions.With his wife, Maria Theresa of Austria, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Although nominally outranking his wife, Maria Theresa, archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia, the capable but easygoing Francis always was overshadowed by her strong personality. Sorry, your search returned zero results for "francis i, holy roman emperor". Heavily indebted and on the verge of bankruptcy at the end of the seven years war, the Austrian Empire was in a better financial condition than France or England in the 1780s. During the war he was elected Holy Roman emperor after the death of the emperor Charles VII (the elector Charles Albert of Bavaria), who was one of his wife’s chief adversaries. Born to Leopold Joseph, Duke of Lorraine, Francis became the oldest surviving son of his father after the death of his brother Leopold Clement. In June 1737 Francis went to Hungary again to fight against the Turks. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife, Maria Theresa, effectively executed the real powers of those positions. They married on February 12 in the Augustinian Church, Vienna. Francis was quite the philanderer and was known for his many indiscreet affairs, notably one with Maria Wilhelmina, Princess of Auersperg, who was thirty years his junior. Francis I was the Holy Roman Emperor who along with his wife founded the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. etc. Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daughter of Charles III of Spain. Corrections? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Emperor considered other possibilities (such as marrying her to the future Charles III of Spain) before announcing the engagement of the couple. Not to be confused with Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, later styled Francis I as Emperor of Austria. Soon after Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine, Francis abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor. Charles consented to it only on condition that Francis make the sacrifice required by the French in order to end the War of the Polish Succession, namely, the cession of Lorraine to Stanisław Leszczyński (Stanisław I), for whom the French had failed to secure Poland. Napoleon defeated the Third Coalition at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. The influence of Francis in government was inconsiderable except in economic matters. He had a natural fund of good sense and brilliant business capacity and was a useful assistant to Maria Theresa in the laborious task of governing the complicated Austrian dominions, but he was not active in politics. Maria Theresa and Francis I had sixteen children—their youngest daughter was the future queen consort of France, Marie Antoinette (1755–1793). Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daughter of Charles III of Spain. In 1731 he was initiated into freemasonry (Grand Lodge of England) at a specially convened lodge in The Hague at the house of the British Ambassador, Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. ; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor from 1792 to 1806 and, as Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria from 1804 to 1835. In 1519 Francis sought election as Holy Roman emperor but lost out to Charles of Habsburg, who already was the king of Spain and ruler of the Netherlands. Francis II (German: Franz II. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. This particular affair was remarked upon in the letters and journals of visitors to the court and in those of his children. He is buried in tomb number 55 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. Francis was well content to leave the wielding of power to his able wife. Gian Gastone de' Medici, who died on 9 July 1737, was the second cousin of Francis. The (secret) treaty between the Emperor and Francis was signed on May 4, 1736. etc. He was a member of the Freemasons. They arrived on January 20, 1739. France had demanded that Maria Theresa's fiancé surrender his ancestral Duchy of Lorraine to accommodate the deposed King of Poland. . Francis at the age of 15 in his hunting attire. Charles was a member of the House of Wittelsbach, thus his reign as Holy Roman Emperor marked the end of three centuries of uninterrupted Habsburg imperial rule. Maria Theresa mourned his death throughout the 15 years by which she survived him. Alternative Title: Francis I of Austria. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. Media in category "Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor" The following 41 files are in this category, out of 41 total. Maria Theresa secured in the Treaty of Füssen his election to the Empire on 13 September 1745, in succession to Charles VII, and she made him co-regent of her hereditary dominions. Once elected, Charles V demanded that Francis give up Milan, which he proclaimed was an imperial fief. Francis I (Francis Stephen; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real power of those positions. Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daughter of Charles III of Spain. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... …marriage of Maria Theresa to Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine, the latter’s domains would be united with Austria’s, and French plans for the acquisition of Lorraine would be thwarted. He had designed to marry his daughter Maria Theresa to Francis' older brother Leopold Clement. They were the founders of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. A preliminary peace was concluded in October 1735 and ratified in the Treaty of Vienna in November 1738. He assumed the title of Emperor of Austria in response to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French. Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine, but lost Lorraine when he had to give it to France. Francis I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany and of Jerusalem, Archduke of Austria,Duke of Lorraine, Bar, and Grand Duke of Tuscany, Duke of Calabria, in Silesia of Teschen, Prince of Charleville, Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson and Nomeny, Count of Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein, etc. Coat of Arms of Francis I - Holy Roman Emperor 1745-1765. Francis was born in Nancy, Lorraine (now in France), the oldest surviving son of Leopold Joseph, duke of Lorraine, and his wife Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, daughter of Philippe, duc d'Orléans. In March 1736 the Emperor persuaded Francis, his future son-in-law, to secretly exchange Lorraine for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Under its terms, Stanis?aw I, the father-in-law of King Louis XV and the losing claimant to the Polish throne, received Lorraine, while Francis, in compensation for his loss, was made heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, which he would inherit in 1737. In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, and were replaced by 6,000 Austrians. He is better remembered for his cultural interests. Maria Theresa arranged for Francis to become "Lord Lieutenant" (locumtenens) of Hungary in 1732. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's uncles and aunts: Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's aunt was Queen Marie Antoinette of France Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's uncle-by-marriage was King Louis XVI of France Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's aunt was Archduchess Marie Elisabeth Of Austria Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's aunt was Archduchess Marie Anna Of Austria Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor… He hesitated three times (and laid down the feather before signing). Description: Continental School 18th Century royal portrait of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, oil on canvas. found: Ency. He died suddenly in his carriage while returning from the opera at Innsbruck on 18 August 1765. Francis I of Austria started out as Emperor Francis II (Franz II), the head of the Habsburg monarchy and ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. On February 1, Maria Theresa sent Francis a letter: she would withdraw from her future reign, when a male successor for her father appeared. 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